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CoffeeScript 是一门编译到 JavaScript 的小巧语言. 在 Java 般笨拙的外表下, JavaScript 其实有着一颗华丽的心脏. CoffeeScript 尝试用简洁的方式展示 JavaScript 优秀的部分.

CoffeeScript 的指导原则是: "她仅仅是 JavaScript". 代码一一对应地编译到 JS, 不会在编译过程中进行解释. 已有的 JavaScript 类库可以无缝地和 CoffeeScript 搭配使用, 反之亦然. 编译后的代码是可读的, 且经过美化, 能在所有 JavaScript 环境中运行, 并且应该和对应手写的 JavaScript 一样快或者更快.

最新版本: 1.7.1

sudo npm install -g coffee-script

概览

左边是 CoffeeScript, 右边是编译后输出的 JavaScript.

# 赋值:
number   = 42
opposite = true

# 条件:
number = -42 if opposite

# 函数:
square = (x) -> x * x

# 数组:
list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

# 对象:
math =
  root:   Math.sqrt
  square: square
  cube:   (x) -> x * square x

# Splats:
race = (winner, runners...) ->
  print winner, runners

# 存在性:
alert "I knew it!" if elvis?

# 数组 推导(comprehensions):
cubes = (math.cube num for num in list)
var cubes, list, math, num, number, opposite, race, square,
  __slice = [].slice;

number = 42;

opposite = true;

if (opposite) {
  number = -42;
}

square = function(x) {
  return x * x;
};

list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

math = {
  root: Math.sqrt,
  square: square,
  cube: function(x) {
    return x * square(x);
  }
};

race = function() {
  var runners, winner;
  winner = arguments[0], runners = 2 <= arguments.length ? __slice.call(arguments, 1) : [];
  return print(winner, runners);
};

if (typeof elvis !== "undefined" && elvis !== null) {
  alert("I knew it!");
}

cubes = (function() {
  var _i, _len, _results;
  _results = [];
  for (_i = 0, _len = list.length; _i < _len; _i++) {
    num = list[_i];
    _results.push(math.cube(num));
  }
  return _results;
})();
run: cubes

安装

CoffeeScript 编译器本身是 CoffeeScript 写的, 使用了 Jison parser generator. 命令行版本的 coffee 是一个实用的 Node.js 工具. 不过编译器并不依赖 Node, 而是能运行于任何 JavaScript 执行环境, 比如说在浏览器里(看上边的"试一试 CoffeeScript").

安装前你需要最新稳定版 Node.js, 和 npm (Node Package Manager). 借助 npm 可以安装 CoffeeScript:

npm install -g coffee-script

(如果不想全局安装可以去掉 -g 选项.)

如果你希望安装 master 分支上最新的 CoffeeScript, 你可以从源码仓库 克隆 CoffeeScript, 或直接下载源码. 还有通过 npm 方式安装 master 分支最新的 CoffeeScript 编译器:

npm install -g http://github.com/jashkenas/coffee-script/tarball/master

或者你想将其安装到 /usr/local, 而不用 npm 进行管理, 进入 coffee-script 目录执行:

sudo bin/cake install

用法

安装之后, 你应该可以运行 coffee 命令以执行脚本, 编译 .coffee 文件到 .js 文件, 和提供一个交互式的 REPL. coffee 命令有下列参数:

-c, --compile 编译一个 .coffee 脚本到一个同名的 .js 文件.
-m, --map 随 JavaScript 文件一起生成 source maps. 并且在 JavaScript 里加上 sourceMappingURL 指令.
-i, --interactive 启动一个交互式的 CoffeeScript 会话用来尝试一些代码片段. 等同于执行 coffee 而不加参数.
-o, --output [DIR] 将所有编译后的 JavaScript 文件写到指定文件夹. 与 --compile--watch 搭配使用.
-j, --join [FILE] 编译之前, 按参数传入顺序连接所有脚本到一起, 编译后写到指定的文件. 对于编译大型项目有用.
-w, --watch 监视文件改变, 任何文件更新时重新执行命令.
-p, --print JavaScript 直接打印到 stdout 而不是写到一个文件.
-s, --stdio 将 CoffeeScript 传递到 STDIN 后从 STDOUT 获取 JavaScript. 对其他语言写的进程有好处. 比如:
cat src/cake.coffee | coffee -sc
-l, --literate 将代码作为 Literate CoffeeScript 解析. 只会在从 stdio 直接传入代码或者处理某些没有后缀的文件名需要写明这点.
-e, --eval 直接从命令行编译和打印一小段 CoffeeScript. 比如:
coffee -e "console.log num for num in [10..1]"
-b, --bare 编译到 JavaScript 时去掉顶层函数的包裹.
-t, --tokens 不对 CoffeeScript 进行解析, 仅仅进行 lex, 打印出 token stream: [IDENTIFIER square] [ASSIGN =] [PARAM_START (] ...
-n, --nodes 不对 CoffeeScript 进行编译, 仅仅 lex 和解析, 打印 parse tree:
Expressions
  Assign
    Value "square"
    Code "x"
      Op *
        Value "x"
        Value "x"
--nodejs node 命令有一些实用的参数, 比如
--debug, --debug-brk, --max-stack-size, 和 --expose-gc. 用这个参数直接把参数转发到 Node.js. 重复使用 --nodejs 来传递多个参数.

例子:

Literate CoffeeScript

除了被作为一个普通的编程语言, CoffeeScript 也可以在 "literate" 模式下编写。 如果你以 .litcoffee 为扩展名命名你的文件, 你可以把它当作 Markdown 文件来编写 — 此文档恰好也是一份可执行的 CoffeeScript 代码, 编译器将会把所有的缩进块 (Markdown 表示源代码的方式) 视为代码, 其他部分则为注释.

Just for kicks, a little bit of the compiler is currently implemented in this fashion: See it as a document, raw, and properly highlighted in a text editor.

I'm fairly excited about this direction for the language, and am looking forward to writing (and more importantly, reading) more programs in this style. More information about Literate CoffeeScript, including an example program, are available in this blog post.

语言手册

这份手册所设计的结构, 方便从上往下进行阅读. 后边的章节使用前面介绍的语法和手法. 阅读这份手册需要对 JavaScript 比较熟悉. 以下所有的例子, CoffeeScript 源码将在左边显示, 并在右侧直接编译到 JavaScript.

很多例子可以通过点击右边的 run 按钮直接运行(代码有意义的话), 也可以通过点击左边的 load 按钮载入"试一试 CoffeeScript"的控制台.

首先, 一些基础, CoffeeScript 使用显式的空白来区分代码块. 你不需要使用分号 ; 来关闭表达式, 在一行的结尾换行就可以了(尽管分号依然可以用来把多行的表达式简写到一行里). 不需要再用花括号来 { } 包裹代码快, 在 函数, if 表达式, switch, 和 try/catch 当中使用缩进.

传入参数的时候, 你不需要再使用圆括号来表明函数被执行. 隐式的函数调用的作用范围一直到行尾或者一个块级表达式.
console.log sys.inspect objectconsole.log(sys.inspect(object));

函数 函数通过一组可选的圆括号包裹的参数, 一个箭头, 一个函数体来定义. 一个空的函数像是这样: ->

square = (x) -> x * x
cube   = (x) -> square(x) * x
var cube, square;

square = function(x) {
  return x * x;
};

cube = function(x) {
  return square(x) * x;
};
load
run: cube(5)

一些函数函数参数会有默认值, 当传入的参数的不存在 (null 或者 undefined) 时会被使用.

fill = (container, liquid = "coffee") ->
  "Filling the #{container} with #{liquid}..."






var fill;

fill = function(container, liquid) {
  if (liquid == null) {
    liquid = "coffee";
  }
  return "Filling the " + container + " with " + liquid + "...";
};
load
run: fill("cup")

对象和数组 CoffeeScript 中对象和数组的字面量看起来很像在 JavaScript 中的写法. 如果单个属性被写在自己的一行里, 那么逗号是可以省略的. 和 YAML 类似, 对象可以用缩进替代花括号来声明.

song = ["do", "re", "mi", "fa", "so"]

singers = {Jagger: "Rock", Elvis: "Roll"}

bitlist = [
  1, 0, 1
  0, 0, 1
  1, 1, 0
]

kids =
  brother:
    name: "Max"
    age:  11
  sister:
    name: "Ida"
    age:  9


var bitlist, kids, singers, song;

song = ["do", "re", "mi", "fa", "so"];

singers = {
  Jagger: "Rock",
  Elvis: "Roll"
};

bitlist = [1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0];

kids = {
  brother: {
    name: "Max",
    age: 11
  },
  sister: {
    name: "Ida",
    age: 9
  }
};
load
run: song.join(" ... ")

JavaScript 里, 你不能使用不添加引号的保留字段作为属性名称, 比如 class. CoffeeScript 里作为键出现的保留字会被识别并补上引号, 所以你不用有额外的操心(比如说, 使用 jQuery 的时候).

$('.account').attr class: 'active'

log object.class


$('.account').attr({
  "class": 'active'
});

log(object["class"]);
load

词法作用域和变量安全 CoffeeScript 编译器会考虑所有变量, 保证每个变量都在词法域里适当地被定义 — 你永远不需要自己去写 var.

outer = 1
changeNumbers = ->
  inner = -1
  outer = 10
inner = changeNumbers()
var changeNumbers, inner, outer;

outer = 1;

changeNumbers = function() {
  var inner;
  inner = -1;
  return outer = 10;
};

inner = changeNumbers();
load
run: inner

注意所有变量的定义都被推到相关的顶层作用域, 也就是第一次出现的位置. outer 在内层的函数里没有被重新定义, 因为它已经存在于作用域当中了. 同时, 内层函数里的 inner 不应该改变外部的同名的变量, 所以在这里有自己的声明.

其行为和 Ruby 的局部变量的作用域实际上是一致的. 由于你没有对 var 关键字的直接访问, 根据需要隐藏一个外部变量就很容易, 你只能引用它. 所以在写深层的嵌套的函数时, 注意不要意外用到和外部变量相同的名字.

尽管要说清楚会受到文档长度限制, 函数的所有 CoffeeScript 结果都被一个匿名函数包裹: (function(){ ... })(); 这层安全的封装, 加上自动生成的 var 关键字, 使得不小心污染全局命名空间很难发生.

如果你希望创建一个其他脚本也能使用的顶层变量, 那么将其作为赋值在 window 上, 或者在 CommonJS 里的 exports 上. 存在操作符(existential operator)可以帮你写出一个可靠的方式找到添加位置; 比如你的目标是同时满足 CommonJS 和浏览器: exports ? this

if, else, unless 和条件赋值 if/else 表达式可以不用圆括号和花括号就写出来. 就像函数和其他块级表达式那样, 多行的条件可以通过缩进来表明. 另外还有一个顺手的后缀形式, 在行尾使用 if or unless.

CoffeeScript 会尝试编译 if 语句到 JavaScript 表达式, 或者一个封装的闭包. CoffeeScript 里不存在直白的三元表达式. — 你只要在一行内使用普通的 if 语句.

mood = greatlyImproved if singing

if happy and knowsIt
  clapsHands()
  chaChaCha()
else
  showIt()

date = if friday then sue else jill



var date, mood;

if (singing) {
  mood = greatlyImproved;
}

if (happy && knowsIt) {
  clapsHands();
  chaChaCha();
} else {
  showIt();
}

date = friday ? sue : jill;
load

变参(splats)... 使用 JavaScript 的 arguments 对象是一种处理接收不定数量个参数的函数常用办法. CoffeeScript 在函数定义和调用里提供了变参(splats) ... 的语法, 让不定个数的参数使用起来更愉悦一些.

gold = silver = rest = "unknown"

awardMedals = (first, second, others...) ->
  gold   = first
  silver = second
  rest   = others

contenders = [
  "Michael Phelps"
  "Liu Xiang"
  "Yao Ming"
  "Allyson Felix"
  "Shawn Johnson"
  "Roman Sebrle"
  "Guo Jingjing"
  "Tyson Gay"
  "Asafa Powell"
  "Usain Bolt"
]

awardMedals contenders...

alert "Gold: " + gold
alert "Silver: " + silver
alert "The Field: " + rest


var awardMedals, contenders, gold, rest, silver,
  __slice = [].slice;

gold = silver = rest = "unknown";

awardMedals = function() {
  var first, others, second;
  first = arguments[0], second = arguments[1], others = 3 <= arguments.length ? __slice.call(arguments, 2) : [];
  gold = first;
  silver = second;
  return rest = others;
};

contenders = ["Michael Phelps", "Liu Xiang", "Yao Ming", "Allyson Felix", "Shawn Johnson", "Roman Sebrle", "Guo Jingjing", "Tyson Gay", "Asafa Powell", "Usain Bolt"];

awardMedals.apply(null, contenders);

alert("Gold: " + gold);

alert("Silver: " + silver);

alert("The Field: " + rest);
load
run

循环和推导式 你可以使用CoffeeScript将大多数的循环写成基于数组、对象或范围的推导式(comprehensions)。 推导式替代(编译为)for循环,并且可以使用可选的子句和数组索引值。 不同于for循环,数组的推导式是表达式,可以被返回和赋值。

# 吃午饭.
eat food for food in ['toast', 'cheese', 'wine']

# 精致的五道菜.
courses = ['greens', 'caviar', 'truffles', 'roast', 'cake']
menu i + 1, dish for dish, i in courses

# 注重健康的一餐.
foods = ['broccoli', 'spinach', 'chocolate']
eat food for food in foods when food isnt 'chocolate'
var courses, dish, food, foods, i, _i, _j, _k, _len, _len1, _len2, _ref;

_ref = ['toast', 'cheese', 'wine'];
for (_i = 0, _len = _ref.length; _i < _len; _i++) {
  food = _ref[_i];
  eat(food);
}

courses = ['greens', 'caviar', 'truffles', 'roast', 'cake'];

for (i = _j = 0, _len1 = courses.length; _j < _len1; i = ++_j) {
  dish = courses[i];
  menu(i + 1, dish);
}

foods = ['broccoli', 'spinach', 'chocolate'];

for (_k = 0, _len2 = foods.length; _k < _len2; _k++) {
  food = foods[_k];
  if (food !== 'chocolate') {
    eat(food);
  }
}
load

推导式可以适用于其他一些使用循环的地方,例如each/forEach, map,或者select/filter,例如: shortNames = (name for name in list when name.length < 5)
如果你知道循环的开始与结束,或者希望以固定的跨度迭代,你可以在范围推导式中 指定开始与结束。

countdown = (num for num in [10..1])

var countdown, num;

countdown = (function() {
  var _i, _results;
  _results = [];
  for (num = _i = 10; _i >= 1; num = --_i) {
    _results.push(num);
  }
  return _results;
})();
load
run: countdown

注意:上面的例子中我们展示了如何将推导式赋值给变量,CoffeeScript总是将 每个循环项收集到一个数组中。但是有时候以循环结尾的函数运行的目的就是 它们的副作用(side-effects)。这种情况下要注意不要意外的返回推导式的结果, 而是在函数的结尾增加一些有意义的返回值—例如true — 或 null

在推导式中使用by子句,可以实现以固定跨度迭代范围值: evens = (x for x in [0..10] by 2)

推导式也可以用于迭代对象中的key和value。在推导式中使用of 来取出对象中的属性,而不是数组中的值。

yearsOld = max: 10, ida: 9, tim: 11

ages = for child, age of yearsOld
  "#{child} is #{age}"
var age, ages, child, yearsOld;

yearsOld = {
  max: 10,
  ida: 9,
  tim: 11
};

ages = (function() {
  var _results;
  _results = [];
  for (child in yearsOld) {
    age = yearsOld[child];
    _results.push("" + child + " is " + age);
  }
  return _results;
})();
load
run: ages.join(", ")

如果你希望仅迭代在当前对象中定义的属性,通过hasOwnProperty检查并 避免属性是继承来的,可以这样来写:
for own key, value of object

CoffeeScript仅提供了一种底层循环,即while循环。与JavaScript中的while 循环的主要区别是,在CoffeeScript中while可以作为表达式来使用, 而且可以返回一个数组,该数组包含每个迭代项的迭代结果。

# 经济 101
if this.studyingEconomics
  buy()  while supply > demand
  sell() until supply > demand

# 摇篮曲
num = 6
lyrics = while num -= 1
  "#{num} little monkeys, jumping on the bed.
    One fell out and bumped his head."
var lyrics, num;

if (this.studyingEconomics) {
  while (supply > demand) {
    buy();
  }
  while (!(supply > demand)) {
    sell();
  }
}

num = 6;

lyrics = (function() {
  var _results;
  _results = [];
  while (num -= 1) {
    _results.push("" + num + " little monkeys, jumping on the bed. One fell out and bumped his head.");
  }
  return _results;
})();
load
run: lyrics.join(" ")

为了更好的可读性,until关键字等同于while not, loop关键字 等同于while true

When using a JavaScript loop to generate functions, it's common to insert a closure wrapper in order to ensure that loop variables are closed over, and all the generated functions don't just share the final values. CoffeeScript provides the do keyword, which immediately invokes a passed function, forwarding any arguments.

for filename in list
  do (filename) ->
    fs.readFile filename, (err, contents) ->
      compile filename, contents.toString()
var filename, _fn, _i, _len;

_fn = function(filename) {
  return fs.readFile(filename, function(err, contents) {
    return compile(filename, contents.toString());
  });
};
for (_i = 0, _len = list.length; _i < _len; _i++) {
  filename = list[_i];
  _fn(filename);
}
load

Array Slicing and Splicing with Ranges Ranges can also be used to extract slices of arrays. With two dots (3..6), the range is inclusive (3, 4, 5, 6); with three dots (3...6), the range excludes the end (3, 4, 5). Slices indices have useful defaults. An omitted first index defaults to zero and an omitted second index defaults to the size of the array.

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

start   = numbers[0..2]

middle  = numbers[3...-2]

end     = numbers[-2..]

copy    = numbers[..]
var copy, end, middle, numbers, start;

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9];

start = numbers.slice(0, 3);

middle = numbers.slice(3, -2);

end = numbers.slice(-2);

copy = numbers.slice(0);
load
run: middle

The same syntax can be used with assignment to replace a segment of an array with new values, splicing it.

numbers = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

numbers[3..6] = [-3, -4, -5, -6]



 
var numbers, _ref;

numbers = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9];

[].splice.apply(numbers, [3, 4].concat(_ref = [-3, -4, -5, -6])), _ref;
load
run: numbers

Note that JavaScript strings are immutable, and can't be spliced.

Everything is an Expression (at least, as much as possible) You might have noticed how even though we don't add return statements to CoffeeScript functions, they nonetheless return their final value. The CoffeeScript compiler tries to make sure that all statements in the language can be used as expressions. Watch how the return gets pushed down into each possible branch of execution in the function below.

grade = (student) ->
  if student.excellentWork
    "A+"
  else if student.okayStuff
    if student.triedHard then "B" else "B-"
  else
    "C"

eldest = if 24 > 21 then "Liz" else "Ike"
var eldest, grade;

grade = function(student) {
  if (student.excellentWork) {
    return "A+";
  } else if (student.okayStuff) {
    if (student.triedHard) {
      return "B";
    } else {
      return "B-";
    }
  } else {
    return "C";
  }
};

eldest = 24 > 21 ? "Liz" : "Ike";
load
run: eldest

Even though functions will always return their final value, it's both possible and encouraged to return early from a function body writing out the explicit return (return value), when you know that you're done.

Because variable declarations occur at the top of scope, assignment can be used within expressions, even for variables that haven't been seen before:

six = (one = 1) + (two = 2) + (three = 3)


var one, six, three, two;

six = (one = 1) + (two = 2) + (three = 3);
load
run: six

Things that would otherwise be statements in JavaScript, when used as part of an expression in CoffeeScript, are converted into expressions by wrapping them in a closure. This lets you do useful things, like assign the result of a comprehension to a variable:

# 前十个全局属性(变量).

globals = (name for name of window)[0...10]
var globals, name;

globals = ((function() {
  var _results;
  _results = [];
  for (name in window) {
    _results.push(name);
  }
  return _results;
})()).slice(0, 10);
load
run: globals

As well as silly things, like passing a try/catch statement directly into a function call:

alert(
  try
    nonexistent / undefined
  catch error
    "And the error is ... #{error}"
)

var error;

alert((function() {
  try {
    return nonexistent / void 0;
  } catch (_error) {
    error = _error;
    return "And the error is ... " + error;
  }
})());
load
run

There are a handful of statements in JavaScript that can't be meaningfully converted into expressions, namely break, continue, and return. If you make use of them within a block of code, CoffeeScript won't try to perform the conversion.

Operators and Aliases Because the == operator frequently causes undesirable coercion, is intransitive, and has a different meaning than in other languages, CoffeeScript compiles == into ===, and != into !==. In addition, is compiles into ===, and isnt into !==.

You can use not as an alias for !.

For logic, and compiles to &&, and or into ||.

Instead of a newline or semicolon, then can be used to separate conditions from expressions, in while, if/else, and switch/when statements.

As in YAML, on and yes are the same as boolean true, while off and no are boolean false.

unless can be used as the inverse of if.

As a shortcut for this.property, you can use @property.

You can use in to test for array presence, and of to test for JavaScript object-key presence.

To simplify math expressions, ** can be used for exponentiation, // performs integer division and %% provides true mathematical modulo.

All together now:

CoffeeScriptJavaScript
is===
isnt!==
not!
and&&
or||
true, yes, ontrue
false, no, offfalse
@, thisthis
ofin
inno JS equivalent
a ** bMath.pow(a, b)
a // bMath.floor(a / b)
a %% b(a % b + b) % b
launch() if ignition is on

volume = 10 if band isnt SpinalTap

letTheWildRumpusBegin() unless answer is no

if car.speed < limit then accelerate()

winner = yes if pick in [47, 92, 13]

print inspect "My name is #{@name}"
var volume, winner;

if (ignition === true) {
  launch();
}

if (band !== SpinalTap) {
  volume = 10;
}

if (answer !== false) {
  letTheWildRumpusBegin();
}

if (car.speed < limit) {
  accelerate();
}

if (pick === 47 || pick === 92 || pick === 13) {
  winner = true;
}

print(inspect("My name is " + this.name));
load

The Existential Operator It's a little difficult to check for the existence of a variable in JavaScript. if (variable) ... comes close, but fails for zero, the empty string, and false. CoffeeScript's existential operator ? returns true unless a variable is null or undefined, which makes it analogous to Ruby's nil?

It can also be used for safer conditional assignment than ||= provides, for cases where you may be handling numbers or strings.

solipsism = true if mind? and not world?

speed = 0
speed ?= 15

footprints = yeti ? "bear"






 
var footprints, solipsism, speed;

if ((typeof mind !== "undefined" && mind !== null) && (typeof world === "undefined" || world === null)) {
  solipsism = true;
}

speed = 0;

if (speed == null) {
  speed = 15;
}

footprints = typeof yeti !== "undefined" && yeti !== null ? yeti : "bear";
load
run: footprints

The accessor variant of the existential operator ?. can be used to soak up null references in a chain of properties. Use it instead of the dot accessor . in cases where the base value may be null or undefined. If all of the properties exist then you'll get the expected result, if the chain is broken, undefined is returned instead of the TypeError that would be raised otherwise.

zip = lottery.drawWinner?().address?.zipcode
var zip, _ref;

zip = typeof lottery.drawWinner === "function" ? (_ref = lottery.drawWinner().address) != null ? _ref.zipcode : void 0 : void 0;
load

Soaking up nulls is similar to Ruby's andand gem, and to the safe navigation operator in Groovy.

Classes, Inheritance, and Super JavaScript's prototypal inheritance has always been a bit of a brain-bender, with a whole family tree of libraries that provide a cleaner syntax for classical inheritance on top of JavaScript's prototypes: Base2, Prototype.js, JS.Class, etc. The libraries provide syntactic sugar, but the built-in inheritance would be completely usable if it weren't for a couple of small exceptions: it's awkward to call super (the prototype object's implementation of the current function), and it's awkward to correctly set the prototype chain.

Instead of repetitively attaching functions to a prototype, CoffeeScript provides a basic class structure that allows you to name your class, set the superclass, assign prototypal properties, and define the constructor, in a single assignable expression.

Constructor functions are named, to better support helpful stack traces. In the first class in the example below, this.constructor.name is "Animal".

class Animal
  constructor: (@name) ->

  move: (meters) ->
    alert @name + " moved #{meters}m."

class Snake extends Animal
  move: ->
    alert "Slithering..."
    super 5

class Horse extends Animal
  move: ->
    alert "Galloping..."
    super 45

sam = new Snake "Sammy the Python"
tom = new Horse "Tommy the Palomino"

sam.move()
tom.move()




var Animal, Horse, Snake, sam, tom,
  __hasProp = {}.hasOwnProperty,
  __extends = function(child, parent) { for (var key in parent) { if (__hasProp.call(parent, key)) child[key] = parent[key]; } function ctor() { this.constructor = child; } ctor.prototype = parent.prototype; child.prototype = new ctor(); child.__super__ = parent.prototype; return child; };

Animal = (function() {
  function Animal(name) {
    this.name = name;
  }

  Animal.prototype.move = function(meters) {
    return alert(this.name + (" moved " + meters + "m."));
  };

  return Animal;

})();

Snake = (function(_super) {
  __extends(Snake, _super);

  function Snake() {
    return Snake.__super__.constructor.apply(this, arguments);
  }

  Snake.prototype.move = function() {
    alert("Slithering...");
    return Snake.__super__.move.call(this, 5);
  };

  return Snake;

})(Animal);

Horse = (function(_super) {
  __extends(Horse, _super);

  function Horse() {
    return Horse.__super__.constructor.apply(this, arguments);
  }

  Horse.prototype.move = function() {
    alert("Galloping...");
    return Horse.__super__.move.call(this, 45);
  };

  return Horse;

})(Animal);

sam = new Snake("Sammy the Python");

tom = new Horse("Tommy the Palomino");

sam.move();

tom.move();
load
run

If structuring your prototypes classically isn't your cup of tea, CoffeeScript provides a couple of lower-level conveniences. The extends operator helps with proper prototype setup, and can be used to create an inheritance chain between any pair of constructor functions; :: gives you quick access to an object's prototype; and super() is converted into a call against the immediate ancestor's method of the same name.

String::dasherize = ->
  this.replace /_/g, "-"

String.prototype.dasherize = function() {
  return this.replace(/_/g, "-");
};
load
run: "one_two".dasherize()

Finally, class definitions are blocks of executable code, which make for interesting metaprogramming possibilities. Because in the context of a class definition, this is the class object itself (the constructor function), you can assign static properties by using
@property: value, and call functions defined in parent classes: @attr 'title', type: 'text'

Destructuring Assignment To make extracting values from complex arrays and objects more convenient, CoffeeScript implements ECMAScript Harmony's proposed destructuring assignment syntax. When you assign an array or object literal to a value, CoffeeScript breaks up and matches both sides against each other, assigning the values on the right to the variables on the left. In the simplest case, it can be used for parallel assignment:

theBait   = 1000
theSwitch = 0

[theBait, theSwitch] = [theSwitch, theBait]




 
var theBait, theSwitch, _ref;

theBait = 1000;

theSwitch = 0;

_ref = [theSwitch, theBait], theBait = _ref[0], theSwitch = _ref[1];
load
run: theBait

But it's also helpful for dealing with functions that return multiple values.

weatherReport = (location) ->
  # 发起一个 Ajax 请求获取天气...
  [location, 72, "Mostly Sunny"]

[city, temp, forecast] = weatherReport "Berkeley, CA"




var city, forecast, temp, weatherReport, _ref;

weatherReport = function(location) {
  return [location, 72, "Mostly Sunny"];
};

_ref = weatherReport("Berkeley, CA"), city = _ref[0], temp = _ref[1], forecast = _ref[2];
load
run: forecast

Destructuring assignment can be used with any depth of array and object nesting, to help pull out deeply nested properties.

futurists =
  sculptor: "Umberto Boccioni"
  painter:  "Vladimir Burliuk"
  poet:
    name:   "F.T. Marinetti"
    address: [
      "Via Roma 42R"
      "Bellagio, Italy 22021"
    ]

{poet: {name, address: [street, city]}} = futurists



var city, futurists, name, street, _ref, _ref1;

futurists = {
  sculptor: "Umberto Boccioni",
  painter: "Vladimir Burliuk",
  poet: {
    name: "F.T. Marinetti",
    address: ["Via Roma 42R", "Bellagio, Italy 22021"]
  }
};

_ref = futurists.poet, name = _ref.name, (_ref1 = _ref.address, street = _ref1[0], city = _ref1[1]);
load
run: "name + "-" + street"

Destructuring assignment can even be combined with splats.

tag = "<impossible>"

[open, contents..., close] = tag.split("")






var close, contents, open, tag, _i, _ref,
  __slice = [].slice;

tag = "<impossible>";

_ref = tag.split(""), open = _ref[0], contents = 3 <= _ref.length ? __slice.call(_ref, 1, _i = _ref.length - 1) : (_i = 1, []), close = _ref[_i++];
load
run: contents.join("")

Expansion can be used to retrieve elements from the end of an array without having to assign the rest of its values. It works in function parameter lists as well.

text = "Every literary critic believes he will
        outwit history and have the last word"

[first, ..., last] = text.split " "



var first, last, text, _ref;

text = "Every literary critic believes he will outwit history and have the last word";

_ref = text.split(" "), first = _ref[0], last = _ref[_ref.length - 1];
load
run: "first + " " + last"

Destructuring assignment is also useful when combined with class constructors to assign properties to your instance from an options object passed to the constructor.

class Person
  constructor: (options) -> 
    {@name, @age, @height} = options

tim = new Person age: 4

var Person, tim;

Person = (function() {
  function Person(options) {
    this.name = options.name, this.age = options.age, this.height = options.height;
  }

  return Person;

})();

tim = new Person({
  age: 4
});
load
run: tim.age

Function binding In JavaScript, the this keyword is dynamically scoped to mean the object that the current function is attached to. If you pass a function as a callback or attach it to a different object, the original value of this will be lost. If you're not familiar with this behavior, this Digital Web article gives a good overview of the quirks.

The fat arrow => can be used to both define a function, and to bind it to the current value of this, right on the spot. This is helpful when using callback-based libraries like Prototype or jQuery, for creating iterator functions to pass to each, or event-handler functions to use with bind. Functions created with the fat arrow are able to access properties of the this where they're defined.

Account = (customer, cart) ->
  @customer = customer
  @cart = cart

  $('.shopping_cart').bind 'click', (event) =>
    @customer.purchase @cart
var Account;

Account = function(customer, cart) {
  this.customer = customer;
  this.cart = cart;
  return $('.shopping_cart').bind('click', (function(_this) {
    return function(event) {
      return _this.customer.purchase(_this.cart);
    };
  })(this));
};
load

If we had used -> in the callback above, @customer would have referred to the undefined "customer" property of the DOM element, and trying to call purchase() on it would have raised an exception.

When used in a class definition, methods declared with the fat arrow will be automatically bound to each instance of the class when the instance is constructed.

Embedded JavaScript Hopefully, you'll never need to use it, but if you ever need to intersperse snippets of JavaScript within your CoffeeScript, you can use backticks to pass it straight through.

hi = `function() {
  return [document.title, "Hello JavaScript"].join(": ");
}`



var hi;

hi = function() {
  return [document.title, "Hello JavaScript"].join(": ");
};
load
run: hi()

Switch/When/Else Switch statements in JavaScript are a bit awkward. You need to remember to break at the end of every case statement to avoid accidentally falling through to the default case. CoffeeScript prevents accidental fall-through, and can convert the switch into a returnable, assignable expression. The format is: switch condition, when clauses, else the default case.

As in Ruby, switch statements in CoffeeScript can take multiple values for each when clause. If any of the values match, the clause runs.

switch day
  when "Mon" then go work
  when "Tue" then go relax
  when "Thu" then go iceFishing
  when "Fri", "Sat"
    if day is bingoDay
      go bingo
      go dancing
  when "Sun" then go church
  else go work
switch (day) {
  case "Mon":
    go(work);
    break;
  case "Tue":
    go(relax);
    break;
  case "Thu":
    go(iceFishing);
    break;
  case "Fri":
  case "Sat":
    if (day === bingoDay) {
      go(bingo);
      go(dancing);
    }
    break;
  case "Sun":
    go(church);
    break;
  default:
    go(work);
}
load

Switch statements can also be used without a control expression, turning them in to a cleaner alternative to if/else chains.

score = 76
grade = switch
  when score < 60 then 'F'
  when score < 70 then 'D'
  when score < 80 then 'C'
  when score < 90 then 'B'
  else 'A'
# grade == 'C'
var grade, score;

score = 76;

grade = (function() {
  switch (false) {
    case !(score < 60):
      return 'F';
    case !(score < 70):
      return 'D';
    case !(score < 80):
      return 'C';
    case !(score < 90):
      return 'B';
    default:
      return 'A';
  }
})();
load

Try/Catch/Finally Try/catch statements are just about the same as JavaScript (although they work as expressions).

try
  allHellBreaksLoose()
  catsAndDogsLivingTogether()
catch error
  print error
finally
  cleanUp()

var error;

try {
  allHellBreaksLoose();
  catsAndDogsLivingTogether();
} catch (_error) {
  error = _error;
  print(error);
} finally {
  cleanUp();
}
load

Chained Comparisons CoffeeScript borrows chained comparisons from Python — making it easy to test if a value falls within a certain range.

cholesterol = 127

healthy = 200 > cholesterol > 60


var cholesterol, healthy;

cholesterol = 127;

healthy = (200 > cholesterol && cholesterol > 60);
load
run: healthy

String Interpolation, Block Strings, and Block Comments Ruby-style string interpolation is included in CoffeeScript. Double-quoted strings allow for interpolated values, using #{ ... }, and single-quoted strings are literal.

author = "Wittgenstein"
quote  = "A picture is a fact. -- #{ author }"

sentence = "#{ 22 / 7 } is a decent approximation of π"





var author, quote, sentence;

author = "Wittgenstein";

quote = "A picture is a fact. -- " + author;

sentence = "" + (22 / 7) + " is a decent approximation of π";
load
run: sentence

Multiline strings are allowed in CoffeeScript. Lines are joined by a single space unless they end with a backslash. Indentation is ignored.

mobyDick = "Call me Ishmael. Some years ago --
  never mind how long precisely -- having little
  or no money in my purse, and nothing particular
  to interest me on shore, I thought I would sail
  about a little and see the watery part of the
  world..."
var mobyDick;

mobyDick = "Call me Ishmael. Some years ago -- never mind how long precisely -- having little or no money in my purse, and nothing particular to interest me on shore, I thought I would sail about a little and see the watery part of the world...";
load
run: mobyDick

Block strings can be used to hold formatted or indentation-sensitive text (or, if you just don't feel like escaping quotes and apostrophes). The indentation level that begins the block is maintained throughout, so you can keep it all aligned with the body of your code.

html = """
       <strong>
         cup of coffeescript
       </strong>
       """
       
var html;

html = "<strong>\n  cup of coffeescript\n</strong>";
load
run: html

Double-quoted block strings, like other double-quoted strings, allow interpolation.

Sometimes you'd like to pass a block comment through to the generated JavaScript. For example, when you need to embed a licensing header at the top of a file. Block comments, which mirror the syntax for block strings, are preserved in the generated code.

###
SkinnyMochaHalfCaffScript Compiler v1.0
Released under the MIT License
###



/*
SkinnyMochaHalfCaffScript Compiler v1.0
Released under the MIT License
 */

load

Block Regular Expressions Similar to block strings and comments, CoffeeScript supports block regexes — extended regular expressions that ignore internal whitespace and can contain comments and interpolation. Modeled after Perl's /x modifier, CoffeeScript's block regexes are delimited by /// and go a long way towards making complex regular expressions readable. To quote from the CoffeeScript source:

OPERATOR = /// ^ (
  ?: [-=]>             # 函数
   | [-+*/%<>&|^!?=]=  # 复合赋值 / 比较
   | >>>=?             # 补 0 右移
   | ([-+:])\1         # 双写
   | ([&|<>])\2=?      # 逻辑 / 移位
   | \?\.              # soak 访问
   | \.{2,3}           # 范围或者 splat
) ///


var OPERATOR;

OPERATOR = /^(?:[-=]>|[-+*\/%<>&|^!?=]=|>>>=?|([-+:])\1|([&|<>])\2=?|\?\.|\.{2,3})/;
load

Cake, and Cakefiles

CoffeeScript includes a (very) simple build system similar to Make and Rake. Naturally, it's called Cake, and is used for the tasks that build and test the CoffeeScript language itself. Tasks are defined in a file named Cakefile, and can be invoked by running cake [task] from within the directory. To print a list of all the tasks and options, just type cake.

Task definitions are written in CoffeeScript, so you can put arbitrary code in your Cakefile. Define a task with a name, a long description, and the function to invoke when the task is run. If your task takes a command-line option, you can define the option with short and long flags, and it will be made available in the options object. Here's a task that uses the Node.js API to rebuild CoffeeScript's parser:

fs = require 'fs'

option '-o', '--output [DIR]', 'directory for compiled code'

task 'build:parser', 'rebuild the Jison parser', (options) ->
  require 'jison'
  code = require('./lib/grammar').parser.generate()
  dir  = options.output or 'lib'
  fs.writeFile "#{dir}/parser.js", code
var fs;

fs = require('fs');

option('-o', '--output [DIR]', 'directory for compiled code');

task('build:parser', 'rebuild the Jison parser', function(options) {
  var code, dir;
  require('jison');
  code = require('./lib/grammar').parser.generate();
  dir = options.output || 'lib';
  return fs.writeFile("" + dir + "/parser.js", code);
});
load

If you need to invoke one task before another — for example, running build before test, you can use the invoke function: invoke 'build'. Cake tasks are a minimal way to expose your CoffeeScript functions to the command line, so don't expect any fanciness built-in. If you need dependencies, or async callbacks, it's best to put them in your code itself — not the cake task.

Source Maps

CoffeeScript 1.6.1 and above include support for generating source maps, a way to tell your JavaScript engine what part of your CoffeeScript program matches up with the code being evaluated. Browsers that support it can automatically use source maps to show your original source code in the debugger. To generate source maps alongside your JavaScript files, pass the --map or -m flag to the compiler.

For a full introduction to source maps, how they work, and how to hook them up in your browser, read the HTML5 Tutorial.

"text/coffeescript" Script Tags

While it's not recommended for serious use, CoffeeScripts may be included directly within the browser using <script type="text/coffeescript"> tags. The source includes a compressed and minified version of the compiler (Download current version here, 39k when gzipped) as extras/coffee-script.js. Include this file on a page with inline CoffeeScript tags, and it will compile and evaluate them in order.

In fact, the little bit of glue script that runs "Try CoffeeScript" above, as well as the jQuery for the menu, is implemented in just this way. View source and look at the bottom of the page to see the example. Including the script also gives you access to CoffeeScript.compile() so you can pop open Firebug and try compiling some strings.

The usual caveats about CoffeeScript apply — your inline scripts will run within a closure wrapper, so if you want to expose global variables or functions, attach them to the window object.

Books

There are a number of excellent resources to help you get started with CoffeeScript, some of which are freely available online.

Screencasts

Examples

The best list of open-source CoffeeScript examples can be found on GitHub. But just to throw out few more:

Resources

Web Chat (IRC)

Quick help and advice can usually be found in the CoffeeScript IRC room. Join #coffeescript on irc.freenode.net, or click the button below to open a webchat session on this page.

Change Log

1.7.1 January 29, 2014

1.7.0 January 28, 2014

$ 'body'
.click (e) ->
  $ '.box'
  .fadeIn 'fast'
  .addClass '.active'
.css 'background', 'white'


$('body').click(function(e) {
  return $('.box').fadeIn('fast').addClass('.active');
}).css('background', 'white');
load

1.6.3 June 2, 2013

1.6.2 March 18, 2013

1.6.1 March 5, 2013

1.5.0 Feb 25, 2013

1.4.0 Oct 23, 2012

1.3.3 May 15, 2012

1.3.1 April 10, 2012

1.2.0 Dec. 18, 2011

1.1.3 Nov. 8, 2011

1.1.2 August 4, 2011 Fixes for block comment formatting, ?= compilation, implicit calls against control structures, implicit invocation of a try/catch block, variadic arguments leaking from local scope, line numbers in syntax errors following heregexes, property access on parenthesized number literals, bound class methods and super with reserved names, a REPL overhaul, consecutive compiled semicolons, block comments in implicitly called objects, and a Chrome bug.

1.1.1 May 10, 2011 Bugfix release for classes with external constructor functions, see issue #1182.

1.1.0 May 1, 2011 When running via the coffee executable, process.argv and friends now report coffee instead of node. Better compatibility with Node.js 0.4.x module lookup changes. The output in the REPL is now colorized, like Node's is. Giving your concatenated CoffeeScripts a name when using --join is now mandatory. Fix for lexing compound division /= as a regex accidentally. All text/coffeescript tags should now execute in the order they're included. Fixed an issue with extended subclasses using external constructor functions. Fixed an edge-case infinite loop in addImplicitParentheses. Fixed exponential slowdown with long chains of function calls. Globals no longer leak into the CoffeeScript REPL. Splatted parameters are declared local to the function.

1.0.1 Jan 31, 2011 Fixed a lexer bug with Unicode identifiers. Updated REPL for compatibility with Node.js 0.3.7. Fixed requiring relative paths in the REPL. Trailing return and return undefined are now optimized away. Stopped requiring the core Node.js "util" module for back-compatibility with Node.js 0.2.5. Fixed a case where a conditional return would cause fallthrough in a switch statement. Optimized empty objects in destructuring assignment.

1.0.0 Dec 24, 2010 CoffeeScript loops no longer try to preserve block scope when functions are being generated within the loop body. Instead, you can use the do keyword to create a convenient closure wrapper. Added a --nodejs flag for passing through options directly to the node executable. Better behavior around the use of pure statements within expressions. Fixed inclusive slicing through -1, for all browsers, and splicing with arbitrary expressions as endpoints.

0.9.6 Dec 6, 2010 The REPL now properly formats stacktraces, and stays alive through asynchronous exceptions. Using --watch now prints timestamps as files are compiled. Fixed some accidentally-leaking variables within plucked closure-loops. Constructors now maintain their declaration location within a class body. Dynamic object keys were removed. Nested classes are now supported. Fixes execution context for naked splatted functions. Bugfix for inversion of chained comparisons. Chained class instantiation now works properly with splats.

0.9.5 Nov 21, 2010 0.9.5 should be considered the first release candidate for CoffeeScript 1.0. There have been a large number of internal changes since the previous release, many contributed from satyr's Coco dialect of CoffeeScript. Heregexes (extended regexes) were added. Functions can now have default arguments. Class bodies are now executable code. Improved syntax errors for invalid CoffeeScript. undefined now works like null, and cannot be assigned a new value. There was a precedence change with respect to single-line comprehensions: result = i for i in list
used to parse as result = (i for i in list) by default ... it now parses as
(result = i) for i in list.

0.9.4 Sep 21, 2010 CoffeeScript now uses appropriately-named temporary variables, and recycles their references after use. Added require.extensions support for Node.js 0.3. Loading CoffeeScript in the browser now adds just a single CoffeeScript object to global scope. Fixes for implicit object and block comment edge cases.

0.9.3 Sep 16, 2010 CoffeeScript switch statements now compile into JS switch statements — they previously compiled into if/else chains for JavaScript 1.3 compatibility. Soaking a function invocation is now supported. Users of the RubyMine editor should now be able to use --watch mode.

0.9.2 Aug 23, 2010 Specifying the start and end of a range literal is now optional, eg. array[3..]. You can now say a not instanceof b. Fixed important bugs with nested significant and non-significant indentation (Issue #637). Added a --require flag that allows you to hook into the coffee command. Added a custom jsl.conf file for our preferred JavaScriptLint setup. Sped up Jison grammar compilation time by flattening rules for operations. Block comments can now be used with JavaScript-minifier-friendly syntax. Added JavaScript's compound assignment bitwise operators. Bugfixes to implicit object literals with leading number and string keys, as the subject of implicit calls, and as part of compound assignment.

0.9.1 Aug 11, 2010 Bugfix release for 0.9.1. Greatly improves the handling of mixed implicit objects, implicit function calls, and implicit indentation. String and regex interpolation is now strictly #{ ... } (Ruby style). The compiler now takes a --require flag, which specifies scripts to run before compilation.

0.9.0 Aug 4, 2010 The CoffeeScript 0.9 series is considered to be a release candidate for 1.0; let's give her a shakedown cruise. 0.9.0 introduces a massive backwards-incompatible change: Assignment now uses =, and object literals use :, as in JavaScript. This allows us to have implicit object literals, and YAML-style object definitions. Half assignments are removed, in favor of +=, or=, and friends. Interpolation now uses a hash mark # instead of the dollar sign $ — because dollar signs may be part of a valid JS identifier. Downwards range comprehensions are now safe again, and are optimized to straight for loops when created with integer endpoints. A fast, unguarded form of object comprehension was added: for all key, value of object. Mentioning the super keyword with no arguments now forwards all arguments passed to the function, as in Ruby. If you extend class B from parent class A, if A has an extended method defined, it will be called, passing in B — this enables static inheritance, among other things. Cleaner output for functions bound with the fat arrow. @variables can now be used in parameter lists, with the parameter being automatically set as a property on the object — useful in constructors and setter functions. Constructor functions can now take splats.

0.7.2 Jul 12, 2010 Quick bugfix (right after 0.7.1) for a problem that prevented coffee command-line options from being parsed in some circumstances.

0.7.1 Jul 11, 2010 Block-style comments are now passed through and printed as JavaScript block comments -- making them useful for licenses and copyright headers. Better support for running coffee scripts standalone via hashbangs. Improved syntax errors for tokens that are not in the grammar.

0.7.0 Jun 28, 2010 Official CoffeeScript variable style is now camelCase, as in JavaScript. Reserved words are now allowed as object keys, and will be quoted for you. Range comprehensions now generate cleaner code, but you have to specify by -1 if you'd like to iterate downward. Reporting of syntax errors is greatly improved from the previous release. Running coffee with no arguments now launches the REPL, with Readline support. The <- bind operator has been removed from CoffeeScript. The loop keyword was added, which is equivalent to a while true loop. Comprehensions that contain closures will now close over their variables, like the semantics of a forEach. You can now use bound function in class definitions (bound to the instance). For consistency, a in b is now an array presence check, and a of b is an object-key check. Comments are no longer passed through to the generated JavaScript.

0.6.2 May 15, 2010 The coffee command will now preserve directory structure when compiling a directory full of scripts. Fixed two omissions that were preventing the CoffeeScript compiler from running live within Internet Explorer. There's now a syntax for block comments, similar in spirit to CoffeeScript's heredocs. ECMA Harmony DRY-style pattern matching is now supported, where the name of the property is the same as the name of the value: {name, length}: func. Pattern matching is now allowed within comprehension variables. unless is now allowed in block form. until loops were added, as the inverse of while loops. switch statements are now allowed without switch object clauses. Compatible with Node.js v0.1.95.

0.6.1 Apr 12, 2010 Upgraded CoffeeScript for compatibility with the new Node.js v0.1.90 series.

0.6.0 Apr 3, 2010 Trailing commas are now allowed, a-la Python. Static properties may be assigned directly within class definitions, using @property notation.

0.5.6 Mar 23, 2010 Interpolation can now be used within regular expressions and heredocs, as well as strings. Added the <- bind operator. Allowing assignment to half-expressions instead of special ||=-style operators. The arguments object is no longer automatically converted into an array. After requiring coffee-script, Node.js can now directly load .coffee files, thanks to registerExtension. Multiple splats can now be used in function calls, arrays, and pattern matching.

0.5.5 Mar 8, 2010 String interpolation, contributed by Stan Angeloff. Since --run has been the default since 0.5.3, updating --stdio and --eval to run by default, pass --compile as well if you'd like to print the result.

0.5.4 Mar 3, 2010 Bugfix that corrects the Node.js global constants __filename and __dirname. Tweaks for more flexible parsing of nested function literals and improperly-indented comments. Updates for the latest Node.js API.

0.5.3 Feb 27, 2010 CoffeeScript now has a syntax for defining classes. Many of the core components (Nodes, Lexer, Rewriter, Scope, Optparse) are using them. Cakefiles can use optparse.coffee to define options for tasks. --run is now the default flag for the coffee command, use --compile to save JavaScripts. Bugfix for an ambiguity between RegExp literals and chained divisions.

0.5.2 Feb 25, 2010 Added a compressed version of the compiler for inclusion in web pages as
extras/coffee-script.js. It'll automatically run any script tags with type text/coffeescript for you. Added a --stdio option to the coffee command, for piped-in compiles.

0.5.1 Feb 24, 2010 Improvements to null soaking with the existential operator, including soaks on indexed properties. Added conditions to while loops, so you can use them as filters with when, in the same manner as comprehensions.

0.5.0 Feb 21, 2010 CoffeeScript 0.5.0 is a major release, While there are no language changes, the Ruby compiler has been removed in favor of a self-hosting compiler written in pure CoffeeScript.

0.3.2 Feb 8, 2010 @property is now a shorthand for this.property.
Switched the default JavaScript engine from Narwhal to Node.js. Pass the --narwhal flag if you'd like to continue using it.

0.3.0 Jan 26, 2010 CoffeeScript 0.3 includes major syntax changes:
The function symbol was changed to ->, and the bound function symbol is now =>.
Parameter lists in function definitions must now be wrapped in parentheses.
Added property soaking, with the ?. operator.
Made parentheses optional, when invoking functions with arguments.
Removed the obsolete block literal syntax.

0.2.6 Jan 17, 2010 Added Python-style chained comparisons, the conditional existence operator ?=, and some examples from Beautiful Code. Bugfixes relating to statement-to-expression conversion, arguments-to-array conversion, and the TextMate syntax highlighter.

0.2.5 Jan 13, 2010 The conditions in switch statements can now take multiple values at once — If any of them are true, the case will run. Added the long arrow ==>, which defines and immediately binds a function to this. While loops can now be used as expressions, in the same way that comprehensions can. Splats can be used within pattern matches to soak up the rest of an array.

0.2.4 Jan 12, 2010 Added ECMAScript Harmony style destructuring assignment, for dealing with extracting values from nested arrays and objects. Added indentation-sensitive heredocs for nicely formatted strings or chunks of code.

0.2.3 Jan 11, 2010 Axed the unsatisfactory ino keyword, replacing it with of for object comprehensions. They now look like: for prop, value of object.

0.2.2 Jan 10, 2010 When performing a comprehension over an object, use ino, instead of in, which helps us generate smaller, more efficient code at compile time.
Added :: as a shorthand for saying .prototype.
The "splat" symbol has been changed from a prefix asterisk *, to a postfix ellipsis ...
Added JavaScript's in operator, empty return statements, and empty while loops.
Constructor functions that start with capital letters now include a safety check to make sure that the new instance of the object is returned.
The extends keyword now functions identically to goog.inherits in Google's Closure Library.

0.2.1 Jan 5, 2010 Arguments objects are now converted into real arrays when referenced.

0.2.0 Jan 5, 2010 Major release. Significant whitespace. Better statement-to-expression conversion. Splats. Splice literals. Object comprehensions. Blocks. The existential operator. Many thanks to all the folks who posted issues, with special thanks to Liam O'Connor-Davis for whitespace and expression help.

0.1.6 Dec 27, 2009 Bugfix for running coffee --interactive and --run from outside of the CoffeeScript directory. Bugfix for nested function/if-statements.

0.1.5 Dec 26, 2009 Array slice literals and array comprehensions can now both take Ruby-style ranges to specify the start and end. JavaScript variable declaration is now pushed up to the top of the scope, making all assignment statements into expressions. You can use \ to escape newlines. The coffee-script command is now called coffee.

0.1.4 Dec 25, 2009 The official CoffeeScript extension is now .coffee instead of .cs, which properly belongs to C#. Due to popular demand, you can now also use = to assign. Unlike JavaScript, = can also be used within object literals, interchangeably with :. Made a grammatical fix for chained function calls like func(1)(2)(3)(4). Inheritance and super no longer use __proto__, so they should be IE-compatible now.

0.1.3 Dec 25, 2009 The coffee command now includes --interactive, which launches an interactive CoffeeScript session, and --run, which directly compiles and executes a script. Both options depend on a working installation of Narwhal. The aint keyword has been replaced by isnt, which goes together a little smoother with is. Quoted strings are now allowed as identifiers within object literals: eg. {"5+5": 10}. All assignment operators now use a colon: +:, -:, *:, etc.

0.1.2 Dec 24, 2009 Fixed a bug with calling super() through more than one level of inheritance, with the re-addition of the extends keyword. Added experimental Narwhal support (as a Tusk package), contributed by Tom Robinson, including bin/cs as a CoffeeScript REPL and interpreter. New --no-wrap option to suppress the safety function wrapper.

0.1.1 Dec 24, 2009 Added instanceof and typeof as operators.

0.1.0 Dec 24, 2009 Initial CoffeeScript release.